1. Controlling Redundancy
:: In the file system approach each use has to maintain a separate copy of the same file that results in redundant information with database approach single copy of a file can be accessed by different users, For example in a company, the HR department maintains an employee data file that stores information about grades and designations of employees and is used to calculate their bonus. The billing department also requires the some information to keep track of employee bills regarding transport and other expenses .Both departments are interested in the same data related to employees. So using database approach both departments can access this information.
2. Integrity can be enforced
:: Integrity of data means that data in database is always accurate, such that incorrect information cannot be stored in database. In order to maintain the integrity of data, some integrity constraints are enforced on the database. A DBMS should provide capabilities for defining and enforcing the constraints.
3. Data inconsistency can be avoided
:: In the file system approach, the same information is stored in more than one file. When a record is deleted or updated in one file, the corresponding record should be deleted from all files, which are associated with that record. If any file left unchanged then the data in the files becomes inconsistence and may provide wrong information when required. In case of database approach, when a record is deleted or updated in one file ten the files related with that records are automatically updated.
4. Data can be shared.
5. Standards can be enforced:
: Since DBMS is central system, so standard can be enforced easily may be at company level, department level, national or international level. The standardized data is very helpful during migration and interchanging of data. The file system is an independent system so standard cannot be easily enforced on multiple independent applications.
5. Restricting unauthorized access
:: When multiple users share a database, it is likely that some users will not be authorized to access all information in the database for example account office data is often considered confidential, and hence only authorized person are allowed to access such data. A DBMS should provide a security and authorized subsystem, which the DBA (Database administrator) allow users to create accounts and to specify account restrictions.
6. Providing backup and recovery:
: A DBMS must provide facilities for recovering from hardware or software failures. The backup and recovery subsystem of the DBMS is responsible for recovery. For example if the computer system fails in the middle of a complex update program, the recovery subsystem is responsible for making sure that the database is restored to the state it was in before the program started executing.