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Reference Models

Networking VPS Server

There are two important network architectures. They are ISO-OSIreference model and TCP/IP reference model.

THE OSI REFRENCE MODEL: - This reference model is proposed by international standard organization as a first step towards standardization of the protocol s used in various layer in 1983 by day and Zimmermann. This model is called open system. Interconnection (OSI) reference model. It is referred OSI as it deals with connection open systems. That is the systems are open for communication with other systems.

IT CONSIST 7 LAYERS:-

  1. Physical layer
  2. Data link layer
  3. Network layer
  4. Transport layer
  5. Session layer
  6. Presentation layer
  7. Application layer

THE PRINCIPAL THAT WERE APPLIED TO ARRIVE AT 7 LAYERS:-

  • A layer should be created where a different level of abstraction is needed.
  • Each layer should perform a well defined task.
  • The function of each layer should define internationally standardized protocols.
  • Layer boundaries should be choosed to minimize the information flow across the interface.
  • The number of layers should not be high or too small.
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